persons are confused about the difference between psychiatry and psychology.
The following discussion, therefore, offers an objective, concise, and
simply-stated description of the difference.
psychiatrist has attended medical
school and is a physician and therefore holds an M.D. (Doctor of Medicine)
degree. In residency, he or she received specialized training in the field
of psychiatry, in addition to all the rigorous training of medical school
in general. Moreover, just like other fields of medical practice such as internal
medicine, psychiatry tends to focus mainly on the use of
for treatment. Although psychiatric training may require some training
psychiatrists are not required to complete any
Nevertheless, many psychiatrists have, for personal reasons, pursued training
in psychotherapy. Historically, this training has most often been in the
area of psychoanalysis.
psychologist usually holds a doctoral
degree (a Ph.D., which means Doctor of Philosophy; a Psy.D., which
means Doctor of Psychology; or an Ed.D., which means Doctor of
Education) from a university or professional school. Generally, if he
or she is in clinical practice, the degree will be in
Clinical Psychology (although it might be in
Counseling Psychology). With the exception of the Psy.D. (a purely clinical degree),
all psychologists have had extensive training in research, having completed
an original scientific studycalled a doctoral dissertationas
a major part of the training.
In fact, the
psychologists training in
is what most distinguishes a psychologist from other providers of mental
health treatment. Not only does the field of psychology use research to assess
the effectiveness of various forms of treatment, but also any psychologist
trained in research should have acquired some solid skills useful for analyzing
information and drawing conclusions in psychotherapy sessions.
Psychologists have also received training in
psychological testing during the course of their graduate education in clinical psychology.
addition to their academic training, psychologists have usually completed one
or more clinical internships (which provide practical training in diagnosis,
assessment, and psychotherapy), and they will have experienced at least a
year of required personal psychotherapy.
current practice of both psychiatry and psychology has been deeply influenced
by the theories of psychoanalysis, all three practices have separate
above, psychiatry has its roots in medicine. Psychology has its
in the academic study of animal and human perception, and in the early part
of the 20th century it was first applied clinically as an aid to
both a theory of mental functioning and a specific type of treatment philosophy,
was developed by Sigmund Freud
in the early 1900s. Freud, a physician and a professor
of medicine, developed his theories about psychoanalysis while studying cases
of hysteria and compulsion neurosis. The basic premise of psychoanalysis
is that most psychological symptoms are the result
of our unconsciously
avoiding many of the unpleasant truths about ourselves. Through a detailed
psycho analysis (i.e., analysis of our thought process and mental
images) we come to learn just how we consistently manage to
lie to and deceive ourselves. The idea behind this
treatment philosophy is that persons who have come to understand their own
deceptions can then manage to avoid being controlled by them.
of the clinical procedures of psychoanalysis can be found
on the Types of Psychological Treatment
To become a
psychoanalyst, a person must study and receive supervised training at a
psychoanalytic institute. For many years, only psychiatrists were allowed
admission to psychoanalytic training institutes, and psychoanalysis was the
preferred treatment modality used by psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy.
Today, however, psychologistsas well as some social workers and even
lay personscan get admission to psychoanalytic training.
Anyone who goes
through the training to become a psychoanalyst must complete a thorough personal
psychoanalytic treatment as well. Moreover, some psychologists who do not
choose to pursue psychoanalytic training still choose a personal psychoanalysis
as a way to prepare for being better able to serve their patients.
advertisingno sponsorjust the simple truth . . .
American Psychiatric Association represents all member psychiatrists,
and its site provides extensive information about psychiatry.
The Medical Board of
California oversees licensing of physicians in CA.
for the Study of the Psychoanalytic Arts To advance
the study of psychoanalytic epistemology, theory, practice, ethics, and education
within a psychological framework consisting of philosophy, the arts, and
the anthropic sciences as opposed to biology, medicine, and the natural
The American Psychoanalytic
Association represents all member psychoanalysts.
The Lacanian School
of Psychoanalysis in the San Francisco Bay area, offers training
in Lacanian psychoanalysis.
by Wolfgang Albrecht, in Berlin; provides links to pages with information
related to Psychoanalysis.
The Psychoanalytic Institute
of Northern California offers psychoanalytic training.
The San Francisco Psychoanalytic
Institute is a psychoanalytic training institute in San
The San Francisco Society
for Lacanian Studies provides lectures and information about Lacanian
Lacan Related Papers provides links to numerous
Links provides links to Lacanian sites and is an extensive resource
for Lacanian articles and papers.
of State and Provincial Psychology Boards Roster for US and
The California Board
of Psychology oversees licensing of psychologists in CA.
California Psychological Association Accrediting Agency provides
information about continuing education for psychologists in CA.
of the American Psychological Association lists the various divisions
of the APA and will give you an idea of the many varied applications of
in the History of Psychology
of Psychology Archives
Related pages within A Guide to Psychology
and its Practice:
How To Become
or Counseling or...?
Questions and Answers
To Become a
Types of Psychological
INDEX of all subjects
on this website